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General: General and specific guides to detection of alcohol and drug use, and definition of addiction.
Contents:I. General Guide to Detection
II. Definition of Addiction
III. Pupil Dilation
IV. Signs and Symptoms
V. Paraphernalia a) S/S Chart Version
VI. Drug Facts
VII. Articles and Other Resources
VIII. Drug Pictures/Resources
X. Additional Articles (Alcoholism, Drugs, Teenage Addiction, Interventions)
XI. Overdose and Emergency Intervention Techniques
I. Specific: General Guide to Detection
Abrupt changes in work or school attendance, quality of work, work output, grades, discipline.
Unusual flare-ups or outbreaks of temper. Withdrawal from responsibility. General changes in overall attitude. Deterioration of physical appearance and grooming.
Wearing of sunglasses at inappropriate times. Continual wearing of long-sleeved garments particularly in hot weather or reluctance to wear short sleeved attire when appropriate. Association with known substance abusers. Unusual borrowing of money from friends, co-workers or parents. Stealing small items from employer, home or school. Secretive behavior regarding actions and possessions; poorly concealed attempts to avoid attention and suspicion such as frequent trips to storage rooms, restroom, basement, etc.
II. Specific: DSM-IV Definition of Addiction
A maladaptive pattern of substance use, leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by three (or more) of the following, occurring at any time in the same 12-month period:
(1) Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
a. A need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b. Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of the substance.
(2) Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the following:
a. The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the substance
b. The same (or a closely related) substance is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms. (
3) The substance is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended (loss of control).
(4) There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control substance use (loss of control). (
5) A great deal of time is spent on activities necessary to obtain the substance, use the substance, or recover from its effects (preoccupation).
(6) Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of substance use (continuation despite adverse consequences).
(7) The substance use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance (adverse consequences).